The idea of driving aimlessly seems glamorous in movies and songs. In reality, few of us get in a car without knowing how to reach our destination. We’ve created smartphone apps, GPS devices and satellite mapping to make our trips as efficient as possible and to avoid what we know to be an inconvenient, expensive outcome — getting lost.
I bring up this idea because many companies using social media have inadvertently become lost drivers. They start using social platforms with the goal of reaching some number of likes, retweets or shares, but as they embark on their social media strategies, many experience a disconnect between the content they post, blog and tweet and their progress on measurable business goals. These companies are driving without a roadmap; they just don’t know it.
Sound familiar? If social media isn’t working for you, your social media approaches may be missing a fundamental component: an effective content strategy. Here are three ways a solid content strategy will enhance your company’s social media success.
A like is just a like
All social media engagement is not created equally. To be successful, the social media activity that you generate needs to support your marketing goals — whether you want to improve employee engagement, boost customer conversions or build interest in a new product.
Creating a content strategy before you engage in social media will help your business clarify the specific marketing goals you want to achieve through content, as well as what messages you need to communicate to reach those goals. This process will ensure you get the right likes, shares and retweets from social interactions.
Social is a vehicle
Social media is a vehicle for sharing compelling content with your audience, and it doesn’t work if you don’t know what issues, topics and trends your audience finds compelling. Part of developing a content strategy involves learning how those you are trying to reach want to be talked to. Where do they go for information? How much time do they spend online? What kind of content are they looking for from your industry?
By getting to know the interests and pain points of your audience (customers, employees, shareholders, etc.), you can develop tactics to reach your online audience more effectively, saving you time and enhancing your company’s social influence.
Relevant content is meaningful
Kings of social content don’t become that way by luck. They use strategic tactics to connect with their audience through the right channels at the right times. More importantly, they make these connections meaningful and memorable by posting and sharing strategic, relevant content that their audiences desire.
When you deliver social content that your audience members find valuable or interesting, they’ll reward you by sharing your content, engaging with your business and, ideally, helping to promote your reputation as a thought leader in your business or industry. A content strategy allows you to do that by providing a roadmap for what kinds of informative, helpful, educational or creative content you need to make meaningful interactions.
As a recent Huffington Post article put it, the golden rule of the web is clear: “To know us better is to sell us better.” Ultimately, being successful in the social media space means taking the time to map out what success looks like. In this sense, a solid content strategy is not only an important component of any social media strategy, it’s the key to driving the results your business wants.
Michael Marzec is chief strategy officer of Smart Business and SBN Interactive. Reach him at firstname.lastname@example.org or (440) 250-7078.
When Albert “Chainsaw Al” Dunlap was the CEO at Sunbeam in the late ’90s, he had a reputation for ruthlessness. Besides massively downsizing the company, he was also known to intimidate everyone around him and resort to yelling and fist pounding.
While extreme, Dunlap’s behavior is an example of the type of “dictator” leadership that used to be fairly common in the C-suite. Rules were rules, there were no exceptions for anything and people were just a line item on a budget. Need to cut thousands of jobs? Don’t think twice about it.
On the other end of the spectrum is the Christ-like leader. This leader focuses more on building people up rather than tearing them down. This type of leader understands that there are rules, but sometimes to do the right thing, the rules need to be broken. For example, during the economic downturn, some Christ-like leaders went well beyond what was called for to make sure laid-off employees were taken care of.
They made sure they had the use of office resources to look for a new job and did everything they could to lessen the hardships. They weren’t required to do this; it was just the right thing to do. They saw employees as human, not just numbers on a spreadsheet.
Does it cost money to take the more humane route with your leadership? Yes and no. From a short-term, bottom-line perspective, it probably does cost a few more dollars to help people through a hardship. But long term, it can pay dividends. By treating people with respect and doing the right thing, it helps eliminate animosity toward you and your company from both the ex-employees and current ones. Maybe there are some good employees who you wanted to keep, but couldn’t afford. By showing compassion, when the economy turned around, they were far more likely to consider coming back than if they had just been shown the door with little regard to their well-being.
And what happens when these ex-employees end up in key positions in companies that could be customers? Do you think an ex-employee who you mistreated is going to buy anything from you or recommend your company to someone? It’s a small world, and what goes around often comes around, so it’s always best to treat people as best you can.
You can lead like a dictator and still get results. But do the ends justify the means? Will you conquer all, only to find yourself alone with no friends, the equivalent of Ebenezer Scrooge in “A Christmas Carol?” Or will you have an epiphany and realize there’s a better way to do things?
During this holiday season, think about your leadership style and the long-term effect it has on people’s lives. If this exercise makes you uncomfortable, then maybe it’s time to change how you lead. ●
What would it take for a company to succeed if its leader could effectively do only one of the following: innovate, instigate or administrate? We all know that an innovator is the one who sees things that aren’t and asks why not? The instigator sees things that are and asks why? The administrator doesn’t necessarily ask profound questions but, instead, is dogged about crossing the “t’s,” dotting the “i’s” and making sure that whatever is supposed to happen happens.
Ideally, a top leader combines all three traits while being charismatic, intellectual, pragmatic and able to make decisions faster than a speeding bullet. Although some of us might fantasize that we are Superman or Superwoman, with a sense of exaggerated omnipotence, the bubble usually bursts when we’re confronted simultaneously with multiple situations that require the versatility of a Swiss army knife.
Business leaders come in all shapes and sizes with various skill sets and styles that are invaluable, depending on the priorities of a company at any given point in time.
Every business needs an innovator to differentiate the company. Without a unique something or other, there isn’t a compelling reason to exist. Once those special products or services that distinguish the business from others are discovered and in place, it takes an instigator to continuously re-examine and challenge every aspect of the business that leads to continued improvements, both functionally and economically. It also takes an administrator — someone who can keep all the balls in the air, ensuring that everyone in the organization is in sync and delivering the finished products as promised to keep customers coming back.
As politicians and pundits of all types have pounded into our heads in recent years, “It takes a village to raise a child.” All who practice the art and science of business have learned that, instead of a village, it takes a diverse team working together to make one plus one equal three.
On the ideal team, each member possesses different strengths, contributing to the greater good. The exceptional leader is best when he or she is an effective chef who knows how to mix the different skills together to create a winning recipe.
In many companies, however, leaders tend to surround themselves with clones who share similar abilities, interests and backgrounds. As an example, a manufacturer may have a management team comprised solely of engineers, or a marketing organization could have salespeople who came up through the ranks calling all the shots.
If everyone in an organization comes from the same mold, what tends to happen is, figuratively, one lies and the others swear to it. This builds to a crescendo of complacency and perpetual mediocrity.
There is a better way. Good leaders surround themselves with others who complement their capabilities, and savvy leaders select those with dramatically different backgrounds who will challenge their thinking because they’re not carbon copies of the boss. This opens new horizons, forges breakthroughs and leads to optimal daily performance.
Strange bedfellows can stimulate, nudge and keep each other moving toward the previously unexplored.
To have a sustainable and effective organization, you can’t have one type without all the others. While everyone on the team may not always agree, each player must always be committed to making the whole greater than the sum of the parts.
The single most important skill of the leader who has to pull all the pieces and parts together is to have the versatility of that Swiss army knife — selecting the precise tool to accomplish the objective at hand. ●
Michael Feuer co-founded OfficeMax in 1988, starting with one store and $20,000 of his own money. During a 16-year span, Feuer, as CEO, grew the company to almost 1,000 stores worldwide with annual sales of approximately $5 billion before selling this retail giant for almost $1.5 billion in December 2003. In 2010, Feuer launched another retail concept, Max-Wellness, a first of its kind chain featuring more than 7,000 products for head-to-toe care. Feuer serves on a number of corporate and philanthropic boards and is a frequent speaker on business, marketing and building entrepreneurial enterprises. “The Benevolent Dictator,” a book by Feuer that chronicles his step-by-step strategy to build business and create wealth, published by John Wiley & Sons, is now available. Reach him with comments at email@example.com.
More than 800 years ago, medieval philosopher Maimonides outlined eight levels of charity, the greatest of which was supporting an individual in such a way that he or she becomes independent. In Maimonides’ view, support was defined as a gift or loan, entering into a partnership or simply helping that person find employment.
Few things are more powerful than philanthropy — especially when its end goal is to better the lives of others. These days, philanthropy, and corporate philanthropy specifically, has assumed a broader role in society.
Today, companies give back more strategically than ever before. They align themselves with nonprofits that foster missions they believe in. The wealthiest people on the planet have even coordinated the Giving Pledge (www.givingpledge.org), where they’ve committed to dedicate the majority of their wealth to philanthropy.
At last count, more than 115 people had taken the pledge. Warren Buffett and Bill Gates may be the most prominent names on the list, but others include Spanx Founder Sara Blakely, Cavs Owner Dan Gilbert, Progressive’s Peter Lewis and Netflix Founder Reed Hastings.
Last month, one member, David Rubenstein, CEO and co-founder of The Carlyle Group, discussed the importance of philanthropy during a presentation at EY’s 2013 Strategic Growth Forum.
In his pledge letter, Rubenstein explains why: “I recognize to have any significant impact on an organization or cause, one must concentrate resources, and make transformative gifts — and to be involved in making certain those gifts actually transform in a positive way.”
One way Rubenstein is being transformative is through “Patriotic Philanthropy.” He has given $10 million to help restore President Thomas Jefferson’s Monticello home and underwrote renovations to the historic Washington Monument. Yet Rubenstein’s most noteworthy initiative is the whopping $23 million to acquire a rare copy of the Magna Carta, ensuring it remained in the United States. After its purchase, Rubenstein gifted it to the National Archives.
Not everyone has Rubenstein’s vast resources. But every organization and any individual can make their own impact.
In the workplace, for example, organizations that give back elevate their status perception-wise among competitors and peers. It doesn’t take much. But by being a company that cares, prospective employees want to work for you. For your existing team, deliberate and well-organized corporate philanthropy programs quickly take on a life of their own, becoming a rallying point.
Think strategically and get started by finding your cause. We all have them. They exist at our very core, forming the belief system we live by every day. So why shouldn’t our philanthropy follow that same course? Consider aligning your giving or volunteerism with something you personally believe in or care about; something that fits with what your company does or something that is close to your employees’ hearts.
Most important, get involved and just make a difference. It really comes down to that. One initiative that has always impressed me has been the annual CreateAthon event undertaken by WhiteSpace Creative, a member of the Pillar Award class of 2005. You can read a first-hand account of this year’s program here.
Being a good corporate citizen goes well beyond making good business sense. When you align yourself with causes you care about, whether big or small, you make a difference in someone’s life. And the bottom line is this: It is all of our duties to get involved. It’s no longer a question of if, but rather of what, when and how. ●
Dustin S. Klein is publisher and vice president of operations for Smart Business. Reach him at firstname.lastname@example.org or (440) 250-7026.
Have you ever watched a flock of geese soar through the air? Their synchronized patterns help them conserve energy, communicate and keep track of one another. Understanding and adhering to their patterns is a critical part of their survival.
If you are managing people, you have a lot in common with a flock of geese. On a daily basis you are faced with the challenge of synchronizing your team with the objectives of your business. Making sure that everyone puts forth the right amount of energy, understands corporate objectives and executes according to plan requires constant adherence to a preset pattern.
Determining the pattern is important and requires a lot of thought and discussion. Once the pattern is decided, you can achieve alignment throughout your organization by ensuring that department and individual goals, job descriptions and evaluation tools lineup with the corporate pattern.
Decide the time to start
If you are entering the final year-end quarter, then this is the perfect time to begin this process. Talk with your team about the objectives and goals of your department or business. If you don’t have objectives or goals, then you’ll need to create them. One thing to keep in mind is that objectives are a set of words and goals are a set of numbers.
For example, two objectives for my business include profitable growth and diversification of our revenue base. Our goals include our projected revenue and profit numbers for each line of our business. We also break down our customer base and set numeric goals for each line of business.
Once we’ve set our objectives and goals, we move on to developing strategies and metrics. Similar to the objectives and goals, strategies are comprised of words and metrics are comprised of numbers. Strategies should include important elements such as where the firm will target business and what products or services the firm will offer. Market segments and target audiences should be identified as well as geographic ranges.
The strategy section is also a good spot to determine where the firm will not do business. A few examples of strategic initiatives from my business include activities that drive toward profitable growth, our ability to manage resources, organizational effectiveness and customer satisfaction.
For instance, one of the strategies under our profitable growth initiatives includes developing and implementing a targeted commercial growth plan focused on attracting organizations conducting infectious disease research.
Develop a plan
This plan can be developed for one to three years or more. We focus our firm on a three-year period and fit the plan to one page. The process of developing and fine-tuning the plan takes a few months and should include the involvement of all senior management.
When the senior leadership has signed off on the plan, then each department should develop annual goals that align with the plan. Personnel within each department should work with their managers to develop individual goals that align with their department goals.
Personnel evaluations and bonus plans should incorporate these individual, department and corporate goals thus integrating the plan throughout the organization. Routine monthly or quarterly assessments and opportunity for communication should be scheduled to ensure that everyone remains focused on the corporate plan.
Adhering to this framework should result in a synchronized team that pulls together in the same direction.
Victoria Tifft is founder and CEO of Clinical Research Management, a full-service contract research organization that offers early to late-stage clinical research services to the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries. She can be reached at email@example.com.
Why do more than 38,000 U.S. businesses go bankrupt each year? Obviously filing for bankruptcy wasn’t management’s aim.
Management in these companies simply allowed the “wrong things” to happen. These wrong things represent problems that have been allowed to fester, persist and multiply. As the problems went unrecognized and unresolved, they compromised carrying out essential activities, increased expenses and eroded profits. Eventually these unaddressed problems caused the business to go bankrupt.
Understand the problems
But why can’t management effectively solve problems? Ironically, in most cases, actually solving problems is not the issue. Instead, the challenge for management is to recognize the problems and understand what they are. Once problems are identified and understood, management is in a position to solve them. As George Washington often liked to say: “Errors once discovered are more than half amended.”
So what is it that makes identifying and understanding problems challenging? Management either lacks or fails to use the fundamental managing disciplines that would allow it to do so. These disciplines make effective managing possible. If practicing these management disciplines is so essential why aren’t they universally practiced?
To answer this question, consider a 19th century military theorist named Carl Von Clausewitz who observed, “Everything in war is simple, but the simplest thing is difficult.”
The same is true of management. Although simple disciplines make up the practice of management, actually carrying out these disciplines is difficult. This is because difficulties arise and accumulate, producing a kind of friction or inertia that cause the disciplines not to be practiced. When this happens, managers and their organization stumble along in frustration and failure as problems go unidentified and unresolved.
Consider the why factors
There are three main reasons for the disciplines not to be practiced. The first reason is that many managers do not know that there are seven learned disciplines of management that, through practice, are essential to their effectiveness and success. Therefore the disciplines are neglected.
The second reason is the seven learned disciplines of management are not practically understood — management does not know how to use them. Consequently the disciplines are misused.
The third reason is that management does not practice the management disciplines systematically. As a result, the disciplines are not practiced constantly and consistently.
The seven fundamental management disciplines include planning, organizing, measuring performance, executing, following-up, real-time reporting and problem-solving. Each discipline is impactful, and all are indispensable. Their practice is the best way to understand what effective management does.
How can I be so certain these management disciplines are the secret to management’s success? Because I use them in my work as a turnaround specialist — I’ve helped turn around 28 underperforming and troubled companies (from large Fortune 500 companies to smaller public and private organizations).
When these disciplines were deployed an amazing change took place. The same managers who had wallowed in mediocrity and failure now formed the nucleus of a successful turnaround as they used the management disciplines to make the right things happen.
Fortunately, each of these seven management disciplines can be learned and can empower your management effectiveness.
Jim Burkett is president of Corporate Turnaround Consulting Inc. and author of “The Learned Disciplines of Management: How to Make the
Right Things Happen.” Contact him at
The laws of physics tell us that what goes up must come down. The reverse is true in today’s interest rate climate. Rates that have stayed low — among the lowest they’ve been in U.S. history — for such an extended period of time will soon begin to climb.
“This is a topic that gets commentary daily in the news,” says Jon Park, chair and bank leader of Westfield Bank. “It’s easy to think that it’s just noise and that things will stay this way forever. But it won’t, and companies should take precautions now against the inevitable increases in interest rates.”
The impact rate increases will have on borrowing money is obvious. But your company also could be impacted in other, more unexpected ways.
Smart Business spoke with Park about what you should expect from the coming rate increases, and how you should prepare.
When will rates start to rise and how large might the increases be?
Experts have predicted stable rates for now, with increases beginning in 2015. Once the Federal Reserve begins increasing short-term interest rates, they will likely climb at least 2 percent over a period of 18 to 24 months.
Interest rates work in cycles. The current 0.17 percent short-term rate (one month LIBOR) is considerably lower than its 20 year average of 3.27 percent. When rates have been artificially held low for too long, they will go up. It’s like tension in a spring that has to release.
Are there ways a rate hike can impact businesses that they might not expect?
Increases in interest rates will reduce the profitability of businesses in general. Though new borrowing will still occur, loans will be more expensive. Some companies are able to pass on these costs as price increases, like utilities and other businesses that are equipment-intensive. Many businesses will need to prepare for the increased cost, as the rising rates squeeze the profit margin for themselves, and their clients or vendors.
Another unexpected consequence is that the market value of commercial real estate could slowly begin to decline. The formulas used to determine a property’s worth are based on the positive cash flow the property generates, and interest rates are one of the biggest components of the formula.
What should businesses do to prepare?
Ask your bank to convert variable-rate term and real estate loans into fixed-rate loans. Many businesses have been borrowing at variable rates because it has been cheaper. Converting to a fixed rate will cost more in the short term, but will protect against future interest rate increases.
Approach your bank about re-pricing your fixed rate commercial real estate loan. Normally these loans are re-priced at five-year intervals. You may have several years before hitting the re-pricing threshold. Negotiating to re-price the loan now could secure that fixed interest rate for another five years.
You can also purchase an interest rate swap that will allow you to convert from a variable-rate loan to a fixed-rate loan. Ask your banker about the cost and terms involved to swap rates.
Finally, consider extending the term and/or renewal extension options of any real estate lease. Higher interest rates will eventually translate into higher rent payments, since interest expense is one of the largest cost components for real estate investors and landlords.
Are there other ways companies should prepare themselves from an operational perspective?
Finance your expansion now. If you need to buy a new drilling machine or update your computer system, take advantage of these low interest rates prior to the expected rise.
It is a prudent time to consider your process for accounts receivable. When interest rates are low, many companies aren’t as strict about payment terms. But as interest rates rise, it will be more important to collect your cash quicker and extend your payables longer. Plan ahead and implement the right strategy now.
This is a good time to make sure you have trusted financial advisers on your side to help you prepare for the coming interest rate hikes. ●
Insights Banking & Finance is brought to you by Westfield Bank
Before year’s end, taxpayers need to talk with advisers about their personal tax situation — wages, interest income, dividend income, capital gains, pass-through income from a business and other deductions. This preliminary road map can be used to make appropriate decisions.
“Years ago, I went through a projection with a client. We didn’t move the needle on their taxes much, but the client’s wife said, ‘I feel so much better knowing in December exactly what’s going to happen in April,’” says Patricia Rubin, CPA, director of assurance services at SS&G.
By reflecting in December, taxpayers have time to plan ahead, she says.
Smart Business spoke with Rubin about maximizing year-end planning.
Alternative minimum tax (AMT) is always a big topic. How can you plan around it?
This year, Congress formalized and stabilized many AMT issues. You should do an annual calculation to determine whether AMT will apply to you. A taxpayer must calculate taxes using the regular method and then recalculate following AMT rules and pay the higher amount. AMT rules are similar to regular tax rules. However, under AMT certain items are not deductible in computing taxable income, such as state and local income taxes.
Certain taxpayers will find themselves in AMT every year, but 2014 could have different results as regular tax rates have increased.
How can you reduce taxes with year-end planning?
Donating appreciated stock to a charity is one option, and taxpayers can deduct this under either tax system. If you bought a share of stock for $1,000 that is now worth $10,000, the charity gets $10,000 and you don’t have to pay capital gains on the difference while also claiming a deduction for $10,000. There’s also charitable giving of cash and non-cash items. If you’re cleaning out your closet, make a list. You cannot deduct without specifics on the thrift shop value of donated items. You also can time payments of your state and local taxes — bunching them up and paying them in 2013, or deferring into 2014.
What are some new taxes this year?
These are a little harder to plan for, so consult with your adviser to understand if, and how, these taxes affect you. In addition to the higher tax rates, there is a new 3.8 percent Medicare tax on certain net investment income, as well as a 0.9 percent Medicare tax on earned income. Both of these new taxes apply only if the thresholds have been exceeded. The first year, you need to understand which items are subject to the tax.
In addition, there is a phase out of itemized deductions if your income exceeds the threshold amounts.
What year-end planning is available for a business owner working in the business?
The income of a business owner with an S Corporation, LLC or a partnership passes through to his or her individual return, making tax planning critical.
Make sure your retirement plan maximizes the value to you and your employees, to take advantage of planning opportunities. You can accrue what you’re going to fund into the plan in the current year and pay it next year.
Two depreciation items may be significant. Under Section 179 of the tax code, you can deduct purchases of property, plant and equipment up to $500,000. As the law stands, it drops down to $25,000 in 2014. Also, you still can get 50 percent bonus depreciation for new equipment, which is scheduled to sunset in 2014.
Other items to capture are a health insurance credit for those with less than 50 employees and a self-employed health insurance deduction, which might apply to a shareholder in a closely held company.
Overall, the promise of tax planning is to let you know what’s coming, properly plan for the appropriate deferral of income taxes and reduce your overall taxes. You may not have all three, but year-end tax planning always helps avoid surprises. ●
Insights Accounting & Consulting is brought to you by SS&G
It used to be that buyers would send out purchase orders with standard terms and conditions, and sellers would ship the product with invoices containing their own conditions. Now that more business is conducted online, conditions are agreed to by click-wrap — clicking a box to accept the terms of the website.
That causes problems when employees wind up agreeing to terms that greatly benefit the seller or supplier to the detriment of the purchaser, says Todd C. Baumgartner, a partner at Brouse McDowell.
“For whatever reason — it might be psychological — there is a lot less negotiation with terms and conditions on websites. It’s important to know what you’re agreeing to, and negotiate if you need to protect your interests,” Baumgartner says.
Smart Business spoke with Baumgartner about how to handle click-wrap agreements and potential problems when they’re agreed to without proper review.
How are differences resolved when buyers and sellers have different terms?
The Uniform Commercial Code has standard rules to follow when that happens. But what’s occurring now is that, General Electric, for example, uses a website instead of putting terms and conditions on the back of invoices. There is no paper going back and forth. GE has the clout to pull that off — companies will just accept the terms in order to be GE’s supplier. But you can negotiate terms and conditions on websites.
A 2002 case, I.Lan Systems Inc. v. Netscout Service Level Corp., demonstrates what can happen with these click-wrap contracts. The buyer, I.Lan Systems, negotiated an extensive software license agreement with all sorts of protections. However, whenever there was an update to the software, it was downloaded from a website by the IT department. Every time that happened, they downloaded a new license agreement that voided the prior one. The new agreements were skewed in favor of the software company, stating that it was not responsible if the software crashed the computer system. When that happened, there was fairly extensive damage, but the court ruled the software company was only liable for the original purchase price.
It’s critical that companies understand every time an IT employee clicks these buttons, they’re getting a new software licensing agreement whether they realize it or not.
What’s the best way to deal with click-wrap agreements?
Don’t just click boxes. Have the head of the IT department review everything, and set up a policy in-house with appropriate procedures so these matters are presented to the right decision-makers.
If there’s something in the agreement that’s not acceptable, depending on your leverage, you can tell the software company you’re not doing click-wrap updates or negotiate an agreement covering the updates.
Click-wrap agreements are not necessarily a bad thing for the buyer or seller, but it’s important that it’s mentioned in bold at the bottom of your invoice or purchase order that the terms are on the website. The seller also needs to keep track of the terms and conditions it had. Then, if a company comes back later and claims it didn’t understand the terms, or didn’t know what was agreed to, sellers can produce what was on the website two years ago.
What sort of problems can arise years later?
Many times disputes are about specifications that the product was supposed to meet, and if it didn’t meet those specifications, what damages might be involved. As a supplier, you want to limit your consequential damages to replacing the product. A buyer will argue that it lost revenue as a result of the defective product. If the agreement doesn’t have the proper damage limitation, it’s going to be a problem for the supplier.
Are purchase agreements done differently online?
Essentially they’re set up the same way; it’s just that people are less likely to negotiate something that’s on their computer screen. Companies will still ask for changes to terms and conditions on a website, but the number of requests for changes drops substantially. Everyone’s classically conditioned to review a contract in Microsoft Word line-by-line; as businesspeople we’re still catching up with the fact that websites can be changed. ●
Insights Legal Affairs is brought to you by Brouse McDowell