With provisions of the America Invents Act beginning to roll out, it is a good time to review the overall patent process. Here we review the early stage from conception to filing the application.
An inventor’s idea should be matured to the point where it has been built or described in sufficient detail that it can be built in order to file a patent application. This early stage is also a useful time to perform a search to help determine how close the invention is to related techniques that already exist. It is also important for inventors to understand certain patent laws during this stage to secure a filing date for the patent application that avoids bars to potential patent rights .
“With the new laws, particularly the ‘first to file’ rule, it is important to keep track of your disclosures and to move forward with your filing sooner rather than later,” says Alan Brandt, an associate with Fay Sharpe LLP.
Smart Business spoke with Brandt and associates Namit Bhatt and DeMarcus Levy about considerations to be mindful of during the initial phase of the patent process up to the point of filing the application.
When is an idea 'ready for patenting'?
There is a difference between conceiving an idea and being ready to file a patent application. You are ready to file if you have built a prototype of model of the invention or when you have written a description with enough detail to practice the invention. The stage at which your idea is 'ready for patenting' is called reduction to practice (RTP).
RTP includes two forms: actual and constructive. Actual RTP means that the inventor has built and used the invention for its intended purpose. Constructive RTP occurs upon the filing of an application with a detailed description of the invention.
What is eligible for patent protection?
The patent statutes define four categories of subject matter eligible for patent protection -- process, machine, article of manufacture and composition of matter.
- Process – an act or series of acts or steps.
- Machine – a tangible thing with parts and/or a combination of components.
- Article of manufacture – an article produced from raw materials or assembled from components.
- Composition of matter – a chemical compound or mixture of ingredients.
The invention is defined by the claims of a patent application. A machine is defined by apparatus claims, while a process is defined by method claims, an article of manufacture by apparatus claims and a composition of matter by chemical claims.
There are some exceptions to the statutory categories, which are rooted in a premise that basic tools of science and technological work are not eligible for patent protection. These include laws of nature, physical or natural phenomenon, scientific principles and abstract ideas, which are disembodied concepts, or mental processes without specific applications or structural limitations.
How does the invention relate to the 'state-of-the-art'?
The common misconception among inventors is that the novelty of the invention must be a broad, game-changing advancement of technology. Such advancements are indeed patentable. However, incremental changes or minor improvements can also be patentable.
Novelty is one requirement for patentability of an invention. To satisfy the novelty requirement, an existing technique must not include every aspect of the invention; if it does, the existing technique is said to anticipate the invention. Another hurdle to patent protection is obviousness. In order to be non-obvious the invention must not have been obvious to a person who works in same field at the time of the invention.
A patent search can be performed prior to moving forward with a patent application to get a better understanding of how the invention relates to the 'state-of-the-art.' Performing a search is not required, but is useful in identifying, for example, related existing techniques that never made it to the storeroom shelf. The search can help avoid expenses for a patent application in which the invention is unexpectedly close to some search result. The search can also ensure that inventors are aware of features of the invention that currently exist and features that are more likely to be deemed novel.
What actions by a patentee can bar patent protection of the invention?
An invention can be barred from patent protection by a public disclosure. In the U.S., there is a one-year grace period in which to file a patent application after public disclosure of an invention. In some countries, there is no grace period and public disclosure is an immediate bar to patent protection. Public disclosures can include describing the invention in a printed publication; putting the invention on display or in public use; and offering to sell the invention or including it in a product release.
How should filing the application be coordinated with actions that can otherwise bar patent protection?
Ideally, a patent application is filed prior to the earliest planned public disclosure of the invention. This preserves potential patent protection in all countries. If the invention has already been publicly disclosed, the patent application must be filed before the expiration of the country’s grace period. For example, in the U.S., there is a one-year grace period after public disclosure. In some countries, there is no grace period. The American Invents Act implements a 'first-to-file' system which acts as an incentive for inventors to file patent applications as soon as possible in order to establish priority over another inventor filing a patent application for a similar invention.
Alan Brandt, DeMarcus Levy, and Namit Bhatt are associates with Fay Sharpe. Reach them at (216) 363-9000 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
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