Ethical decisions

Business ethics is often dismissed as a topic that requires passing reference in meetings, little more than just being sure to include a routine paragraph in your employee handbook.

However, Jim Triplett, a faculty member at University of Phoenix’s Cleveland Campus who teaches management coursework on building a culture of business ethics, says that making it a core value of your business can actually provide your company with a method for gaining an advantage over your competitors.

When everyday decisions need to be made outside the borders of the established procedure, that’s when a commitment to business ethics starts paying dividends.

“When the environment changes and gets beyond the scope of your regulations, you’re left in a Wild West environment, hoping your employees will make the right decisions,” says Triplett. “We’ve all seen how the wrong decision can not only be costly, but catastrophic to the organization’s very survival.”

Smart Business spoke with Triplett about how to create an environment that ensures your employees will make the choice that’s best for your business when that time comes.

Why is ethics important in business?

Evidence suggests that in the absence of an established and appropriate formal structure — rules, policies and procedures that exist within the organization or among legal/regulatory bodies that dictate how people should behave — it is ethics that ultimately determines how individuals will behave.

What will employees do when faced with dilemmas that don’t fit into previously established rules and guidelines? How do they make that choice, and will it be a choice you’re comfortable with? The external environment and competitive landscape changes much faster than our ability to create new internal rules and guidelines. So you have to rely on your culture and business ethics to ensure people will behave appropriately.

How can focusing on ethics change the way businesses make decisions?

It ensures employees behave in appropriate ways that avoid legal trouble, as well as embarrassing situations that impact the products and services your company provides. Creating that additional mindset among your employees is important.

This is particularly critical for small-business owners that tend to be spread in so many directions because of the size of their businesses. With responsibility and involvement in everything from the finances, sales, and production to making sure people are behaving consistently with the employee handbook — their attention to each task is by definition much more diminished. They have to trust their employees to do the right thing.

Lending a hand

A company’s people and its culture are the only things that cannot be replicated or duplicated by competition. If a company cannot retain its most valuable employees, it loses its competitive edge.

What keeps a work force motivated? What helps keep them sharp and able to offer the most innovative ideas and skills? Continuing education certainly is at the forefront of a highly skilled and energized work force. Companies have long recognized this through tuition reimbursement programs, one of the most popular employee benefits available today. Depending on the source, some 80-90 percent of companies today offer some type of tuition reimbursement support.

“It’s always incredibly important to the growth of any company to invest in training and education,” says Gina Cuffari, vice president and director of University of Phoenix’s Ohio Campuses. “It’s not only a key driver of employee retention, but it’s vital for maintaining a competitive advantage in the market.”

Smart Business spoke with Cuffari about how tuition reimbursement programs help retain your “A” players — and are smart financial moves, even during a slow economy.

Why should tuition reimbursement be a cornerstone of an employee benefit policy?

There are typically three key business objectives that an organization is trying to impact through their benefit programs: improve retention of staff, attract high-performing new employees into the organization and boost productivity and profitability.

Tuition reimbursement has been proven to achieve those three objectives. At times executives questioning the value of tuition reimbursement often wonder whether they’re educating an employee who will merely leave for greener pastures after earning a degree. Yet a variety of independent studies shows that exactly the opposite occurs.

How do tuition reimbursement programs benefit employers and employees?

I hear firsthand from employers who use tuition assistance that employees who are engaged in the program are more committed and more likely to be considered for an internal promotion. Continuing education helps with the development of critical thinking skills. These skills are especially important today because companies across the board are faced with figuring out how to do more with less, or how to create an innovation that will leapfrog other companies. Those are key messages in business today, so the development of critical thinking skills has an immediate return on investment for an employer.

How prevalent is the risk of employees using their new training to find another job?

That is the major myth employers believe about tuition reimbursement programs. However, there are several studies that show turnover is lower among employees who participate in tuition reimbursement programs.

An Academy of Management Journal study, aptly titled ‘You Paid for the Skills — Now Keep Them,’ showed that taking courses and receiving a bachelor’s degree reduced turnover by nearly 50 percent. Career Systems International cited professional ‘growth, learning and development’ as the No. 2 reason employees remain with their companies. The staffing services firm Spherion reported that 62 percent of surveyed employees who had received training or mentoring were likely to stay in their current positions.

The real question is ‘What is loyalty worth to you as an employer?’ It costs at least 1.5 times an employee’s salary to replace that person, even up to 200 percent if they are in a key leadership position. It could be three to six months before you’ve recruited and trained to replace that person. It’s vital to keep your key staff rather than spend unnecessary dollars recruiting and retraining to replace good people you’ve lost.

Should companies try to save money by reducing tuition assistance programs?

The key aspect to think about is that the economy moves in cycles. What we do in a down economy really helps determine which companies recover more quickly than others. Education is a key to driving the economy out of its current state. So, this is the time when education is more important than ever.

The real question for employers is: Are you keeping your best people now because the economy is preventing them from leaving, or are you keeping them because they’re loyal, invested in your organization and they see the opportunity for skill advancement? If they are only staying because they have nowhere else to go, what’s going to happen when the economy recovers?

It’s a legitimate issue facing people who have to make cuts right now, but consider what you are doing to build for tomorrow’s success by investing in your leaders today. A company is going to turn around faster with smarter people, with a better-educated work force. Whether the economy is in a down cycle or an up cycle, you’ll always beat the competition with a better-educated work force.

Are there best practices to consider when building a tuition reimbursement program?

There are no rigid requirements when designing tuition assistance programs, so employers have flexibility in determining how their programs can function. Some firms offer the same support to all; others target only certain levels within the company.

Also, the level of benefit varies. Some employers cover the entire tuition amount, while others cover a portion. Some tie the level of tuition reimbursement to a student’s performance in the classroom. There is also a tax benefit for the employer. They can provide employees up to $5,250 in education assistance tax-free every year.

Bridging the gap

One of the key issues facing managers today is how to handle the workplace’s generational gap. This is the first time in history that a workplace has members from four different generations at once, all working side-by-side. Each generation is different, and conflicts will ensue if you try to manage all of them with a one-size-fits-all style.

Barry Tolbert, a faculty member at University of Phoenix’s Cleveland Campus, breaks employees into four main generational groups: traditionalists (born before 1942), baby boomers (1943-1960), Generation X (1961-1981) and millenials (1982-2002).

“If you are a supervisor, you really have to understand these generational differences,” says Tolbert. “Supervising a millennial requires different levels of feedback and a different approach than supervising a baby boomer or Generation Xer.”

Smart Business spoke with Tolbert about multigenerational management strategies and how to improve intergenerational communication in the workplace.

What do managers need to know about the different generations’ perspectives on work?

Each generation has its typical characteristics. You may find that younger generations seem to lack a certain element of respect for the status quo that is found in older generations. Generation Xers and millenials are wired differently — they may be working here, but this is not their life. By contrast, a traditionalist’s mindset is ‘I’m here to work. I will support the company; therefore the company will take care of me.’ The baby boomers are optimistic but have more of a love/hate relationship with authority. They believe teamwork is critical to success, so they adapt well to team concepts.

How should supervisors handle the different needs employees from different generations will have?

As a manager or supervisor, you need to be aware of what type of feedback works best for your employees. Should you give an employee a pat on the back, written feedback or just leave him or her alone unless something goes wrong? It depends. Traditionalists are happy getting feedback once a year. Just provide documentation of how they are doing.

Baby boomers want more feedback. They may mistake silence for disapproval, so they need to know what they are doing right and wrong. If you just tell them they’re doing a good job and leave it at that, they’re going to take that as disapproval. They are open to constructive criticism.

Generation Xers, however, figure no news is good news. Unless you tell them they’re doing it wrong, they’ll assume they’re doing it right. And, millenials need positive feedback moment by moment. They need to know if they’re on the right track. Part of this comes from their connection to the Information Age, where everything is instantaneous. They need to know now, so they can move on to something else.

How can employers minimize workplace conflicts between generations?

Look at what all the generations have in common. Start from that common perspective and branch out from there. For instance, they all consider family as a top priority. Whether you are 25 years old or a member of an older generation with grandchildren, family is still important.

Trust and respect are still as valuable now as they were 60 years ago. Everyone wants to feel like they can trust the person next to them, and everyone expects respect.

Lastly, as a whole, everyone wants to strengthen the particular organization they are in. We all like to know we are working to create a better company. Americans by our very nature don’t like being on the losing side, so we try to strengthen the particular organization we are in.

What strategies can be used to create a strong multigenerational workplace?

Education and training are needed at all levels. You can’t assume because someone has been there a long time — either as manager or employee — that they are up to par on how to deal with anyone at all levels. Sometimes we get into a certain corner as an employee, manager or supervisor, and we don’t step out of that corner long enough to see what changes have happened.

In the business environment, change is an everyday thing. It’s human nature to dread change. Even though you’ve been with a company for years, that doesn’t mean you necessarily know how to deal with the newest generation or even your own generation.

How can you improve communication within generations?

For traditionalists, value their experiences. Appreciate what they’ve done. Sometimes you may have to listen to those old war stories. There is a wealth of knowledge there. Also, appreciate their dedication. It takes a lot these days to be at a company 25 years.

For Xers, get to the point. Don’t beat around the bush. Sometimes they will get into ‘what’s in it for me’ mode. If that’s the case, you may want to already have that question answered before you come to them.

For baby boomers, show respect. Give them your full attention. If you’re addressing them, let them know you are focused on them. Focus on relationships and results in your conversations with them.

For millenials, challenge them. Their minds are active 24-7 and they like to combine work and play. Ask their opinions; I guarantee they have them. Lastly, encourage mentorship. Many times, your traditionalists or baby boomers can fill that slot.

Freedom of choice

As the needs of its students change, the role of the educational institution must change as well. At many institutions, students have the option to learn in the way that best fits their lifestyle or learning style: online, on-campus (in classroom) or a blended approach.

Myra Snipes, a faculty member at University of Phoenix’s Cleveland Campus, says that making these choices available is a key to giving students the education that works for them.

“Historically, education was provided only in the classroom,” says Snipes. “With some online universities, it’s online only. But the more progressive institutions allow the student to choose one of three environments: online, campus or a combination of each. Sometimes they will make that choice based on lifestyle, sometimes they will make that choice based on learning skills. Some students are unfamiliar with an online component. But once they become more comfortable, they may switch to strictly an online environment.”

Smart Business spoke with Snipes about how students can utilize a blended approach to improve their skills.

Why do most universities today blend online and campus education?

Students today have a variety of demands on their time, and they each bring a different set of skills to their educational careers. At some point, they may find the flexibility of online learning fits better with their work or personal lives; at other times, they may opt for the traditional classroom environment. Regardless of their situation, the ability to choose the best environment for the topic or their schedule fits the type of student you see today. They appreciate the ability to move back and forth between both modes of learning throughout their careers.

How does the online portion of the course affect the learning environment?

It puts a lot of responsibility on the students to be engaged with their fellow classmates via the computer. For instance, the instructor may post a critical thinking question and encourage all the students to respond. The ongoing discussion is referred to as a thread. A student is required to respond in at least 150 words. One sentence is not acceptable; he or she has to post a thoughtful reply. So, he or she has to do the research on that particular topic and is graded accordingly. The student is also expected to post a question and the other students must respond to it as well. It allows for dialogue via computer, instead of through the classroom.

How does dialogue and discussion via computer fit into the ‘learning team’ concept?

At the start of a session, the instructor allows the students to form virtual learning teams. They are expected to come up with a team charter, and you also have to have a team leader. On the first night, students may wonder how they are going to interact, and who is going to be on their team for group exercises. So after the first workshop assignment, the learning teams are established. In a large sense, this actually mirrors what takes place in the workplace. People are not always assigned their teammates at work, but they must learn how to work with different, diverse people. There are few jobs today where people don’t interact on a team, often with people remotely in different locations.

Each team is responsible for its own work, and the group has a lot of flexibility in deciding how they’ll operate. A team may decide to meet in a chat room at a certain time to work on its project. The team leader of each learning team is expected to complete a team log, to measure the success of each team member. Then, the instructor can see how well the teams are completing their assigned tasks.

It’s very interesting to watch and observe the different styles of the teams and their various strengths and weaknesses. Students are constantly encouraged to use their conflict resolution skills, which of course is another valuable skill that can be applied to most workplaces.

How does the blended approach of learning apply to the workplace?

Employers expect employees to have good written communication skills, technology skills and oral communication skills. Within this culture, the students are going to see an improvement during the five-week class — even if any of those skills start off as a weakness. By the time they graduate, the students are very comfortable working in a team environment and are prepared for the real world.

How does the blended approach benefit the students?

It’s such a demanding and competitive work environment today that every employee must bring their very best skills to the job in order to be truly valuable to their employer. The traditional classroom goes a long way in helping translate the student’s classroom experience to the job. Other than the course material, of course, the classroom provides the ability to develop and improve public speaking skills via the oral presentations required for every class. In addition, students are able to network with distinguished local faculty, relying on them for in-person advice and counsel on workplace challenges they may be experiencing. Peer-to-peer interactions on campus with other students are very helpful as well.

Myra Snipes is a faculty member at University of Phoenix’s Cleveland Campus, as well as the City of Akron’s training/EEO officer, responsible for the development and implementation of the city’s training, organizational development and diversity initiatives. University of Phoenix, the largest private university in North America, serves a diverse student population, offering associate’s, bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degree programs from campuses and learning centers across the U.S. as well as online throughout the world. University of Phoenix’s Cleveland Campus serves students online and at locations in Independence, Beachwood and Westlake/Crocker Park. To learn more, contact University of Phoenix at (216) 447-8807 or (800) MY SUCCESS or

Mastering business

Going after a master’s degree in business administration has always helped employees get ahead, but it has become even more important in today’s economy.

“An MBA gives you a good, well-rounded understanding of how a business is composed and how it gets things done,” says Fletcher Birmingham, who leads faculty facilitating graduate business courses at University of Phoenix’s Cleveland Campus.

That understanding makes employees more valuable to their current employer — and makes them sought after by others.

“MBA students are trying to develop better skills or a better understanding of what makes a business successful because they know that it will help them improve their current job performance or better their prospects for another job that may open up,” says Birmingham.

Smart Business spoke with Birmingham about how an MBA helps employers as well as employees.

How can employees benefit from an MBA?

There are a few things that are really helpful. Specifically, in today’s job market and today’s economy, the reality is that you can’t promise job security. There is no such thing based on our current economic conditions. But what you can do is develop job skills that are transferable — flexibility to go to where the work is. If you look at the people, students and employees in the MBA program, it’s the place to learn those skills so that you do have transferable skills, you can be portable and you can go to where the work is needed.

What does having an MBA represent to potential employers?

The good part about the MBA and what makes it so valuable is students can come in and learn a number of real-world experiences. One is to learn the different departments of a company and how they operate, get results and determine what’s important.

So, through their training classes in the MBA program, the students are going to get exposure to all the primary departments of a company — accounting and finance, a course or two that gives them exposure to sales and marketing, an understanding of operations, human resources and law.

Students in the MBA program now have a better understanding of how businesses are organized, probably have a better understanding of what’s important in their role in the company and also, in a bigger picture, how they and their peers have to interact, and how goals are interconnected for the benefit of the organization. So the employer really benefits from this program, because instead of getting departmentalization in which you optimize your performance even if it is marginalizing or rationalizing the performance for another department, employees have a better understanding of the whole system; the whole business works together to get results.

How can an MBA help employees in their current roles?

I like to encourage students to think, ‘At your company, who has this role?’ For instance, if I am teaching a course on maximizing shareholder wealth, that course is focused on finance, working capital and cash flow. So who has the responsibility for taking care of your company’s assets? I like to ask them that question for every class, and then I like to encourage them to keep an open mind to learn about it because they might decide later on in their career that it is a role they may want to take. If it’s a topic you don’t necessarily like or if it doesn’t seem to match your interest, then at least you’ll better understand your peers.

How can employees make the most of their MBA experiences?

When we are talking about assignments and topics in our classes, the faculty likes to look to the students. We ask, ‘What is going on in your workplace today?’ We’re not looking to go into the specifics and break into something confidential. But what is an example that you’re struggling with in your work department that we can bring in here? That way, we have some real-life examples on the table for students to look at and learn from, then take right back so that they have improvements they can connect to right away at work.

They’ve already talked about it in a work context. If they talk about it outside of the work context, they have people who are not involved in this specific issue who have different backgrounds, resources, work at different companies, maybe different industry sectors, who can offer some fresh ideas. The classroom is a good place where we can bring better ideas and better solutions.

How have MBA programs changed recently?

Today’s MBA programs involve more teamwork. Case studies have been the traditional learning model, used to develop a methodology for problem solving. What’s new in recent years is that more and more of that involves a simulation. So instead of reading a 100-page case, you’re doing something that has some simulation aspects to it and you have a team assignment so people are working on this together.

The benefit of the simulation versus the case study is the simulation is very dynamic. As the students reach a decision, they enter that decision in the simulation and the next problems that come up are connected to their selection of choices. It makes it more realistic.

The next level

Jason Briggs was tired of being trapped in his job. After seven years as a senior manager at Agilysys Inc., Briggs was bumping his head on his professional ceiling. He knew he needed to further his education to get the promotion he wanted.

“I just couldn’t get over the hump,” says Briggs.

After receiving his bachelor’s degree from University of Phoenix’s Cleveland Campus, Briggs went looking for better opportunities. He had only been at his new job a few months when Agilysys asked him to return as the company’s director of facilities and real estate — at a 57 percent net salary increase.

Smart Business spoke with Briggs about furthering your education and how it can give you advantages in the workplace.

How did your professional experience help you in your continuing education endeavors?

I had an associate’s degree and nearly 15 years experience in my position, so I knew a lot of the material they were throwing at us in advance. But what’s nice is that the classes really put a finishing edge on my education in areas like statistics and human resource law — things not in my core skill set. It helped me become a more well-rounded, universal strategic player.

The faculty was outstanding, because most of the faculty members are actually practitioners. They all have master’s degrees and, in the academia world, it’s pretty much a prerequisite to have a master’s or Ph.D. So, when you’re going for your bachelor’s degree, you can trust that you’ll learn what you need to know to survive in business.

The other major bonus is the fact that, like everyone in the classes, the professors are working for a living. It’s not like a brick-and-mortar institution where most of the educators are professional professors. These people are practitioners and most of them teach the curriculum part-time, while working in the work force full-time. That adds to their credibility.

That, along with the learning teams and the flexible schedules, is what I found to be most beneficial.

What are these learning teams?

A lot of people, including myself, had no idea what these were. When they found out, many people were disenfranchised by the idea. Why would I want to join a learning team and have 30 to 40 percent of my final grade based on my participation and have some people with no academic skills pull my team down? That’s the No. 1 complaint and frequently asked question.

But after you get over that initial reluctance and experience being part of the team, you begin to understand how it can benefit you as a student. The learning teams present a great opportunity for those who have never been in a collaborative environment to participate in groups to understand where they fit into the pecking order. If three people got into a work group right now, they would understand pretty quickly who the leaders are, who the creative thinkers are, who is good at speaking and who the dominating personalities are. Then, you can learn where you fit in and how your skills can enhance the areas where others’ drop off.

How is the team set up?

There was usually a group of four to six people. You stay with your team for at least the entire class and, while some teams remain together during their entire curriculum, University of Phoenix advisors actually encourage changing team assignments from class to class. The theme of the learning team is to always have new people, so you can experience all the different personalities — just like you would in the workplace.

How did the university’s learning teams enrich your experience?

As a department head, I managed a lot of people and I dealt with a lot of peers. So what was good for me was if I didn’t like the way I was in the group, I could look at myself from a 100,000-foot level and have a chance to tweak my behavior. For instance, when I’m at the learning group, I’m a leader, but I may be too dominant of a leader. If that’s the case, I should back off and ask more questions or do different things. I can take this new outlook to the workplace.

Other people have never led. They may not be natural leaders, but this gives them a snapshot and platform to experiment and say, ‘I need to step it up because I am not aggressive enough. I don’t deal with conflict well.’

Let’s say I was great at three things, and somebody else is great at a fourth thing, but he or she was sick that day. Well then I have to step up to the plate and do something I really wasn’t that great at. Some people love writing papers, and you can give that work to those people. But all of a sudden, that person isn’t there anymore. Now you have to make sure you don’t blow the assignment, because if you do, you let the whole team down. If I don’t do what I’m supposed to do, even if I’m covering for someone, everybody gets the same grade I get. That’s 40 percent of what you’re doing.

Jason Briggs is the director of facilities and real estate at Agilysys Inc. University of Phoenix, the largest private university in North America, serves a diverse student population, offering associate’s, bachelor’s, master’s and doctoral degree programs from campuses and learning centers across the U.S., as well as online throughout the world. University of Phoenix’s Cleveland Campus serves students online and at locations in Independence, Beachwood and Westlake/Crocker Park. To learn more, contact University of Phoenix at (216) 447-8807 or (800) MY SUCCESS or

The healing touch

Change has been constant in the health care industry, and particularly in the nursing field, since the days of Florence Nightingale.

Denise Kresevic, a member of the faculty at University of Phoenix’s Cleveland Campus and a nurse researcher and geriatric nurse practitioner at the Louis Stokes Cleveland VA Medical Center, has spent 30 years in nursing. Kresevic uses the famous nurse as an example of why nurses have to keep looking for ways to improve their profession.

“Florence Nightingale cut the mortality rate in half during the Crimean War simply by getting surgeons to wash their hands,” Kresevic says. “She was one of those nurses who collected data from the very beginning. Her observations were so astute. She found that something so basic as hand-washing could save people’s lives.”

Smart Business spoke with Kresevic about how continuing education is preparing today’s nurses to adapt to their changing roles and make the next great discovery.

What are the main issues facing nursing and health care industries in Northeast Ohio?

The scope of the nursing practice has increased so quickly. Physicians used to do the kinds of things that nurses now do regularly. In the 1950s, it was the physician that took blood pressure. Now we have nurses not only taking blood pressure, but we also have advanced nurses ordering blood pressure medication.

Even the role of nurse’s aides has changed dramatically. They used to just help a patient eat or bathe, but now they are actually doing things like taking blood pressure. So that function has gone all the way from the physician to the nurse’s aide.

So, one of our challenges is to determine how to adequately prepare nurses to provide this complex care. What educational programs do we need? What should a basic, entry-level education be, and what should be reserved for more advanced courses?

Another major challenge has been to target educational programs that develop competent nurses who are well rounded.

How can nursing and health care professionals address those challenges?

Continuing education is essential. But nurses shouldn’t just focus on clinical education. Yes, you want to keep up to date on the latest drugs and ways to manage pain, but you also have to keep up on the regulatory standards. There are more and more regulatory standards hospitals and nurses must meet in order to demonstrate competency. We really are in an era where we are calling everything ‘evidence-based.’ When it comes to nursing and health care procedures, we’re not doing it because it’s tradition — we’re doing it because there is strong evidence or research to support what we do.

This is particularly important when the population we look at is very diverse. Families have changed. No longer is the majority of health care done in the hospital during the four days patients come in for surgery. Patients need to be able to go home and care for themselves and stay healthy. In this facet, technology has been explosive. People can go online and find information, but they really need coaching and teaching about health.

Nurses’ relationships with patients has changed dramatically over the past 30 years. Patients are much more active partners in their care, and their care needs are far more complex. Certainly overlaying all of that is that the settings have changed and the reimbursement for care has changed. Plus, the regulatory standards are much more stringent.

How have continuing education programs in the nursing field adapted to changing times?

Many people are working, and nursing is their second career. Those students have a broad knowledge base. They’ve seen the world; they aren’t naive. Continuing education programs have to adapt so they fit into people’s schedules. Balancing life while working on your professional education is a stressful task. So, many of the classes have been adapted so people can fit them into their work schedules.

Traditionally, people would do a two-semester program, where they attended classes during the day and worked on individual assignments on their own time. Now, there’s evening and weekend classes and people work in teams on projects they can actually implement. It isn’t an esoteric paper that they’re never going to do anything with. It’s work-related. They are in a situation where they see a problem and they come up with a solution as a group. Then, they can take that back to their work setting and implement it. Continuing education students have too much to learn in too short a time, so their courses have to be work-related, valuable and applicable.

How do you make education more practical?

Continuing education students want to be active learners. They don’t want to come to a class where you’re going to lecture to them. They want to share their life experiences, which is a great way for the whole class to learn. So they learn partly from the instructor but a lot from each other. That’s a valuable learning experience for everyone.

Part of their education is lectures and writing papers, but a big part of nursing education is hands-on. That is where they work with an experienced nurse and get to see what the real world is like.

The partnerships with other people to provide care increase the complexity. Educational programs have to work on not just the clinical skills, but also the communication and collaboration. You are always working with a team. And the nurse is the quarterback — the one who coordinates all the team members and specialists.

Denise Kresevic is a faculty member at University of Phoenix’s Cleveland Campus and a nurse researcher and geriatric nurse practitioner at the Louis Stokes Cleveland VA Medical Center. University of Phoenix, the largest private university in North America, serves a diverse student population, offering associate’s, bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degree programs from campuses and learning centers across the U.S. as well as online throughout the world. University of Phoenix’s Cleveland Campus serves students online and at locations in Independence, Beachwood and Westlake/Crocker Park. To learn more, contact University of Phoenix at (216) 447-8807 or (800) MY SUCCESS, or

Ongoing education

Today’s entrepreneurs face different challenges than those 20 years ago. Laura Kuhl, a former business owner and entrepreneur who currently works as a senior manager with Dixon-Hughes PLLC, knows those challenges firsthand. As a faculty member at University of Phoenix’s Cleveland Campus, Kuhl helps tomorrow’s entrepreneurs prepare for those challenges.

“I’m a lifelong learner,” says Kuhl. “That is one of the hallmarks of being an entrepreneur. They never, ever feel quite finished.”

Whether you are an entrepreneur or an “intrepreneur” — Kuhl’s term for someone who possesses the skills and attitude of an entrepreneur but works inside someone else’s business — you need to be prepared if you want to survive in the business world.

Smart Business spoke with Kuhl about how the traditional ideas of business are changing and how you can make sure you can adapt to the changes.

What does it take to succeed as an entrepreneur today?

There are things you need to be able to do if you’re an intrepreneur or an entrepreneur. It’s all the same things you have to do to be able to create your own job security. You have to recognize who your customers are. You have to be able to solve problems; you have to be able and willing to accept accountability. The buck stops here. That’s something that entrepreneurs have always had. They are the bottom line for accountability.

Entrepreneurs or intrepreneurs who succeed in the work force take that attitude every day. They are willing to work to generate new business or new business ideas. They innovate and adapt their services — meaning if I’m an employee, I need to be able to adapt to what my customer wants, what my boss wants or what the people I’m serving want. There are some people who can’t do that, but you can learn it. All of these things are things you can learn. So find an academic institution that knows how to equip people with those things that are entrepreneurial in nature.

If you can’t solve problems, if you can’t use technology and/or if you can’t adapt to your customers, you’re going to have a difficult time as an entrepreneur. Those are just skill sets that are unique.

How do you prepare aspiring entrepreneurs for the challenges of running a business?

I stress a nine-step model of problem solving, where you dissect things automatically and routinely. You understand what the steps are to benchmark alternatives and how to assess those alternatives against what your companies objectives are and, ultimately, how to come up with a very good decision, very quickly. Employers value that. By the time you’re done with the program, this approach is so ingrained in how you approach opportunities and problems; it’s like driving home from work.

As a faculty member, what can you teach entrepreneurs about making decisions?

When faced with volumes and volumes of data, people can get mired in it. It’s like not being able to see the forest through the trees.

The benchmarking skills you can learn allow you to come up with data triages very quickly. The data doesn’t matter; it’s the knowledge that matters. Over time, you learn to mark trends and you learn to benchmark. You learn to say, ‘At what point do you have enough information to make the call?’ That’s what education does. It teaches you to be able to discern those critical points where you have enough information to make the call.

Can people besides entrepreneurs benefit from furthering their business education?

I personally can’t imagine a single person on whom this education would be wasted. I’ve heard a lot of people say, ‘Oh, you don’t need an advanced degree for this or that.’ But when things get really competitive, an advanced education can be a differentiator. As an employer, if I have to choose between two attractive candidates, the one who is going to step up and get the position is the one who has better credentials. All other things being equal, that ends up being the factor that triggers your decision.

How can an advanced education increase employability?

You add a lot of credibility to your resume if you are teaching or studying with a university that is progressive. Those are the exact same skills that employers now need.

What I think is important is entrepreneurism is relevant to everybody. It doesn’t matter if they happen to have a job right now where one company gives them a paycheck. Entrepreneurism is attitude; it’s work behavior. It’s how you approach your work much more than it is who’s paying your paycheck. You can get your paycheck direct from the end customer or from somebody in the middle, but it doesn’t change the nature of entrepreneurism. The only way to really be successful is to either be an entrepreneur or an intrepreneur and to learn the skills that go along with that.

LAURA KUHL is a faculty member at University of Phoenix’s Cleveland Campus. University of Phoenix, the largest private university in North America, serves a diverse student population, offering associate’s, bachelor’s, master’s and doctoral degree programs from campuses and learning centers across the U.S. as well as online throughout the world. University of Phoenix Cleveland Campus serves students online and at locations in Independence, Beachwood and Westlake/Crocker Park. To learn more, contact University of Phoenix at (216) 447-8807 or (800) MY SUCCESS or

Degree of difficulty

There has never been a better time to go to school. More and more jobs require a college education, and the competition for quality jobs has intensified as businesses downsize and the labor pool expands.

Louis J. Licata has seen the shift from both sides as both the founder and president of the Licata & Toerek law firm and as an adjunct faculty member at University of Phoenix’s Cleveland Campus, which includes locations in Beachwood, Independence and Westlake.

Even when money is tight, higher education is a sound investment — whether it’s a degree earned by you, your employees or your potential employees.

“You have to bring your game up a level to stay competitive in today’s marketplace,” Licata says. “The only way to do that is through the educational process. If you don’t, you run the risk of being replaced by someone who’s better qualified for your job.”

Smart Business spoke with Licata about how hiring employees with advanced education can upgrade your business.

What factors are placing a premium on increased education?

This isn’t a recent phenomenon. The economic conditions have escalated it, but within the last five or 10 years, businesses and corporations of all sizes and levels have been looking for people to broaden their skill bases and do more with less. Now that the market has become flooded with more people who are looking for employment, anybody who has dreams of moving up the ladder has to enhance their marketability. One of those ways is to go back to school. If you don’t have a degree, get your degree. If you have a degree, go for your MBA or your master’s. As employers start to look for people to fill those jobs, one of the easy differentiators is education.

What are the practical advantages of getting a college degree?

Businesses have gotten into cross training, so they have more depth in their current staff to be able to handle more responsibilities in different areas. The advanced degree or additional education gives people an opportunity to be eligible for cross training. That way, they aren’t in a silo. They aren’t just limited to a particular skill. They are also more attractive to a business because they can help the business in a number of different ways. They’ve also revealed through their education — especially if they decide to go back to school to get an advanced degree — a certain level of commitment to their growth and development. Those are the kinds of people that businesses are looking for.

How can business owners use the competitive job market to their advantage?

You always hear about opportunities in a bad economy. One of the opportunities for businesses is to upgrade their talent pools. This is a golden opportunity for business owners to go out and get a quality, talented individual that might have not otherwise been available before.

If you put an ad in the paper for a marketing coordinator, the easy differentiator is who has a marketing degree at the MBA level versus a marketing degree at the undergraduate level. The unfortunate byproduct of that is there might be others with undergraduate degrees that might be truly better for the job, but you would never know that because you’re focusing on the MBA candidates.

It’s the same for promotions. Say you’ve worked somewhere for 15 years. You know as much about the organization, the structure, the people, the dynamics and the politics as anyone. You’d probably be the best person for that management position. But you’re not even going to get considered without the MBA.

Will a company make an exception? Maybe. But why put a company in a position to have to make an exception? Make it easy for the employer to move you up the ladder or to bring you in by going out and getting an associate’s, bachelor’s or advanced degree. That shows that you have more to offer than the person next to you.

How can hiring employees with college educations benefit a company?

It’s literally an opportunity to trade up. Say you’ve got an employee who’s been mediocre for the last two or three years. That isn’t working anymore. The economy is down; you’ve got to do more with less. That means your people have to step it up. You can’t afford to lose business because you have a mediocre employee. So you need to look for a replacement. With the economy, there are more people in the market, with more experience and education — it’s an upgrade.

It’s insidious, you don’t see it very often, but companies will lay off 20 people, and within months, hire 10 to do the same jobs. If you compare the people they’ve laid off with the people they’ve hired, you’ll see that they’ve clearly upgraded their talent pool. They’ve hired people with more experience or education to do the same job.

LOUIS J. LICATA is the founder and president of the Licata & Toerek law firm and an adjunct faculty member at University of Phoenix’s Cleveland Campus, which includes locations in Beachwood, Independence and Westlake. He is a graduate of the University of Virginia School of Law, the Professional Fellowship Program at Case Western Reserve University’s Weatherhead School of Management and Cleveland State University. University of Phoenix, the largest private university in North America, serves a diverse student population, offering associate’s, bachelor’s, master’s and doctoral degree programs from campuses and learning centers across the U.S. as well as online throughout the world. University of Phoenix Cleveland Campus serves students online and at locations in Independence, Beachwood and Westlake/Crocker Park. To learn more, contact University of Phoenix at (216) 447-8807 or (800) MY SUCCESS or

An event to remember

Corporate events range from afternoon
parties to daylong meetings to three-day conferences. Ideally, employees or clients look forward to the event, participate in interesting activities, eat great food,
get to network, learn something new and, in
the end, walk away with a positive impression about the company.

But, unfortunately, not all events turn out
that way, according to Michele Clark, an
event-planning expert and the program
manager for training and development at
Corporate College. A poorly planned event
can be a public relations disaster, she says,
resulting in a long, drawn-out day — or
days — that attendees find disappointing,
boring or awkward.

“A successful corporate event has three
important elements: diligent planning, consideration for guests and, most importantly, a commitment to fun,” says Clark.

Smart Business spoke with Clark for tips
on how to make your next corporate event
a successful one.

What are the biggest mistakes businesses
make when planning a corporate event?

The biggest problem is when a business
owner or CEO hands off the event-planning opportunity to an administrative professional thinking that he or she can handle
it in his or her ‘spare time.’ Often, administrative professionals are thrown in without
any training, have to shoot from the hip
and hope all turns out well. Business owners tend to think that event planning is like
planning a party, but, in fact, it is a full-time
job that requires great attention to detail
and time-consuming organization. It is a lot
to ask of someone.

Another major mistake is not allowing
enough time to plan. Many CEOs don’t
have a concept of what it takes to plan an
event — even a company holiday party or
picnic. Not having enough time to prepare
could result in lack of attendance, absence
of key VIPs, and places or entertainment
that are already booked.

A third mistake is when the event planner
does not do enough research when booking an event or consider the target audience that will be attending the event. For
example, don’t host an event for your ‘green’ company at a hotel where a nuclear
conference is going on at the same time;
and make sure that you check for food
allergies and offer alternative meals so that
you don’t contribute to an allergic reaction.
Without research and attention to detail,
your event could be a PR disaster.

How can a business avoid these mistakes?

Hire an event planner or train someone in
your company to do the job, such as your
administrative assistant. Make sure the
event planner has the resources and enough
input from you and other employees to do
the job right. Make sure there is no conflict
of interest in the chosen venue. Have all
printed materials on a disk. If for some reason your materials don’t arrive on the event
day, you can take them to get printed.
Finally, have a plan B in case a key speaker
cancels or other unforeseen events happen.

What are the elements that make a memorable, successful company event?


  • Emotional involvement. The audience
    needs to be invested in and committed to the event. You want them to feel excited
    about going, wonderful when they are
    there and happy when they leave. Provide
    incentives for employees to attend, for
    example, give away an iPod to the first 10
    attendees or tickets to a show. Just
    because it’s a company event doesn’t mean
    you can’t use your marketing know-how to
    get people to attend.


    However, remember your event is not just
    a big party — get your attendees involved in
    the learning process in creative ways,
    rather than just have them sit through a
    three-hour PowerPoint presentation.


  • Consistent message. Know the purpose for the event and articulate that purpose in your invitations and marketing
    materials. Without a purpose and a consistent message, the event will feel directionless and will flop.



  • Time used wisely. Have an agenda and
    stick with it. Don’t allow long, drawn-out
    speeches. Make sure you have a facilitator
    to move things along and not let anyone —
    even a VIP — dominate the conversation.



  • Movement. If it is a long conference,
    make sure that you schedule some physical activity, even something as simple as
    touring the facility. Movement reduces tension and makes people more alert.



  • Attention to detail. If the person planning the event is organized, you will have a
    better company event. Little details go a
    long way in keeping attendees happy.


What can a company gain (or lose) from
company events?

A good event creates loyalty, provides
education and develops a team-building
environment for employees and/or clients.
However, a poorly executed event can do a
lot of damage. You can lose credibility with
employees and clients. You can lose time
and money. It takes effort — and a well-trained person — to pull off a successful
event. But once you host a successful
party, meeting or conference, people will
talk positively about it and will be eager to
attend your next one.

MICHELE CLARK runs The Shlensky Institute for Event and Meeting Planning and is the program manager for training and development for Corporate College, which offers employers custom-designed training programs to enhance future work force development, job
growth and job retention in Northeast Ohio. Reach her at (216) 987-2909 or [email protected].