Given the wide spectrum that this discipline covers, neurosurgeons must be well-versed in a wide array of surgical treatments. “On top of experience and residency at a trauma center, I’ve also undergone fellowship training in cerebrovascular surgery as well as skull-based neurosurgery,” says Peyman Tabrizi, M.D., a neurosurgeon at Western Medical Santa Ana.
Smart Business spoke with Tabrizi about neurosurgery, neurovascular emergencies and technological advances in the neurosciences.
What types of conditions do neurosurgeons typically treat?
We deal with various types of intracranial hemorrhages. We also work with spinal trauma which includes fractures or dislocations of the spine. When dealing with trauma you have two forms: penetrating trauma and blood trauma. Forms of penetrating trauma include gunshot wounds or stab wounds to either the head or the spine. Forms of blood trauma include automobile accidents, motorcycle accidents and falls.
As far as non-emergency cases are concerned, there is a whole gambit of pathologies that a neurosurgeon deals with: brain tumors, spine tumors, brain aneurysms and hemorrhagic strokes to name a few.
How does a neurosurgeon treat spinal cord trauma?
With spinal trauma we try to take pressure off of the spinal cord. If there is any fractured portion of the bone that is pinching the spinal cord, we remove the fragments so that the patient can become mobile again. When a trauma patient comes in with a spinal injury, he or she has to be bedridden until the spine is stabilized. If it’s a thoracic or a lumbar spine, then a vascular surgeon or a trauma general surgeon is needed to help with the exposure. Once it’s exposed, the neurosurgeon can address the situation by determining the degree of damage.
What is the procedure for someone who has suffered a skull fracture?
If the patient is involved in a motor vehicle accident, or falls and sustains a skull fracture with internal bleeding, then he or she is taken to the operating room immediately. A skin incision is made in the area of the bone that is fractured and the brain is visualized. Bleeding is controlled, and any minimal blood clots are evacuated. Then the bone is replaced and secured, the fracture is repaired, the skin is closed, and the patient can return to the ICU.
There are some instances in trauma where the brain tissue is so damaged that there is significant brain swelling. In such conditions, the bone flap which is the portion of the bone that is removed and set aside in the operating room until the brain is addressed may need to be stored until the patient has recovered from the acute phase of insult.
What kinds of advances in neurosurgery have occurred over the past few years?
There have been many advances. We have better equipment and improved instruments to deal with neurological cases such as spinal and brain injuries. For example, we now use a navigation system that allows surgeons to navigate within the brain to a specific location. When a patient is taken to an MRI or CAT scan suite, special markers are placed on the scalp which transfers images to the data base in the operating room. The data is used to form a 3-D image, which allows for various views of the brain. During the operation, the images that are obtained are used to help a surgeon hone in on a lesion with more precision.
Also, significant advances in research, associated with both trauma and nontrauma neurosurgical issues, have been made. For example, the appropriate management and approach to stabilization of spinal fractures has transpired through many years of research.
How has the development of minimally invasive techniques aided neurosurgeons?
These days, the amount of skin tissue that is needed is quite small to perform the removal of herniated disks as well as performing spinal fusion. In the past, a neurosurgeon would normally need to make a long incision to be able to perform the operation. Now, with minimally invasive surgery, a very small incision is made, and through that small hole, the same operation can be performed.
How important is continual innovation in the field of neuroscience?
Without continued research and progressive innovation, we would not be able to see increased survival rates and increased improvement in functionality of patients. Ongoing research and advancement in both science and technology helps provide better patient care.
PEYMAN TABRIZI, M.D. is a neurosurgeon at Western Medical Santa Ana. Reach him at (714) 834-0439 or firstname.lastname@example.org.