Although commercial leasing and rental rates are coming back in Chicago, new tenants are still able to negotiate certain benefits from their landlords. Among these benefits are exclusivity provisions, which limit a landlord’s ability to lease space to a tenant’s competitors.
Smart Business spoke with Andrew D. Campbell, a partner at Novack and Macey LLP, about exclusivity provisions.
What is an exclusivity provision?
An exclusivity provision in a lease protects a tenant by prohibiting a landlord from leasing space to others engaged in the same line of business as the tenant. These provisions are especially common in leases for retail tenants, but they can be applied in many contexts.
There are two basic ways to create an exclusivity provision:
1. Expressly identifying the types of businesses to be excluded, or the types of goods that may not be sold in the landlord’s other spaces.
2. Creating an implied exclusivity provision.
An implied exclusivity provision arises when a lease provides that a tenant will have ‘exclusive’ rights — for example, ‘tenant shall have the exclusive right to operate a restaurant with a liquor license.’
Exclusivity provisions restrain trade — are they enforceable?
Yes, exclusivity provisions restrain trade, but this does not render them unenforceable. Courts enforce exclusivity provisions where they do not unreasonably restrain trade. If an exclusivity provision is reasonably necessary for the tenant, reasonable in duration and territorial scope, and does not unduly prejudice the interests of the public, they are generally enforceable.
But because exclusivity provisions restrain trade, some courts construe these provisions strictly. So, if an exclusivity provision is susceptible to two reasonable interpretations, courts often will choose the interpretation that imposes the least restraint on trade.
What should an exclusivity provision say?
To avoid disputes, exclusivity provisions should be as clear and specific as possible. For instance, suppose a McDonald’s restaurant is leasing space in a mall and it wants an exclusivity provision. A provision that excludes all other ‘fast-food restaurants that sell hamburgers’ would probably be too vague. It leaves questions unanswered such as to what constitutes ‘fast food’ and what it means to ‘sell hamburgers.’
A better limitation would be to specifically describe the types of businesses to be excluded — for example, excluding ‘restaurants that do not have table service and that derive 30 percent or more of their gross sales from the sale of hamburgers.’
An even better limitation would give specific examples of restaurants to be excluded — Burger King, Wendy’s, Five Guys, etc. A catchall provision at the end of this list, such as, ‘all other similar restaurants,’ may also be useful in case a relevant competitor was inadvertently omitted from the list. Although catchall provisions lack specificity, courts generally will apply them, but only to the extent the ‘other’ restaurant is similar to those listed.
What are a tenant’s remedies if a landlord violates an exclusivity provision?
While remedies will vary based on the specific terms in the lease, and the governing state law, tenants’ remedies for violation of an exclusivity provision can include repudiating the lease — that is, walking away from any remaining lease obligations — or suing the landlord for injunctive relief and/or damages. So, a tenant may file a lawsuit seeking to preclude a competitor from opening in the landlord’s space and/or the tenant may seek monetary damages that may have resulted from the opening of the competing store.
To minimize this risk, landlords should be sure to check the exclusivity provisions in other tenants’ leases before signing a new tenant.
Andrew D. Campbell is a partner at Novack and Macey LLP. Reach him at (312) 419-6900 or email@example.com.
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Unfortunately, circumstances arise when a company no longer has use for commercial space it has leased. Needs may have changed regarding the size of the business or location, or a company may have experienced financial reversals and must rid itself of the unnecessary expense. Whatever the cause, unwanted commercial space is expensive. Companies holding such leases are hemorrhaging money every month and want relief fast.
“The larger the square footage and longer the lease term, the greater the exposure,” says Robert Chavez, founder and CEO of Guardian Commercial Realty. “Maximizing time and efficiency is vital to properly sublease space and mitigate losses.”
Smart Business spoke to Chavez about the few important steps companies should consider before taking their space to market.
What should tenants consider first when looking to sublease space?
First, read the sublease and default sections of your lease and be aware of any sublease restrictions that may exist. Landlords’ ‘form’ leases often prohibit subleasing to existing tenants in their building, or to companies with whom the landlord is engaged in active negotiations. Likewise, governmental organizations with high traffic count, or the Internal Revenue Service, for example, may be excluded because the landlord deems them an unfit occupant of their building. It would be most unfortunate to spend time and money negotiating and documenting a sublease only to find out in the 11th hour that the proposed subtenant is prohibited.
How can they improve the chances that the space will be sublet?
Have a solid marketing plan. Interview real estate brokers that are active in your market. Understand exactly what measures they will employ to sublease your space and keep you informed. Know their track record and ask for references. Make certain that any listing agreements they may have in the area are not actually conflicting interests. Such brokers may be more beholding to their landlord clients, as they are simply the bigger fish. Ask if the broker can show you a ‘sublease recovery analysis.’ If they do not understand this concept, it may be wise to move on.
It is imperative to understand the subtleties in your market and price the space properly. Pricing the space too high will likely cause the space to sit vacant and allow the financial hemorrhage to continue. Price too low and money is left on the table unnecessarily. The balance between price and timing must be carefully addressed early and clearly. Discuss commission incentives and see if they are commonplace in the market and likely to bring better results.
Also, be certain that your broker has the ability to find tenants that are actively seeking space in the market. All too often sublease space is listed on a marketing service website and brokers wait for the phone to ring. The likelihood of success is enhanced if your broker has an active and well-conceived marketing strategy. Subleasing space properly is more work, so be sure to agree upon a reporting process and keep your brokers accountable for weekly activity reports.
What other challenges must be overcome?
Unless the real estate market is ‘white-hot,’ subleasing space is difficult. Unlike the building owner, a tenant (or sublandlord) only has its specific amount of space, design and floor plan available. Sublandlords are seldom in a position to spend vast sums of money retrofitting their space to suite another occupant. Accordingly, the target audience for subleases is dramatically reduced as compared to what a landlord can offer. Pricing the sublease space below the landlord’s rates is often the only viable way to quickly sublease the space. Timing is extremely critical. It does a company little good if their space works nicely for a particular company but they cannot occupy for 18 months because that is when their lease expires. This would cost a company with 10,000 square feet nearly a half-million dollars in rent just waiting for the subtenant to become viable.
What are the final steps once a subtenant has been identified?
It is important to qualify the company before agreeing to final terms. Be certain to review financial statements and research the company as well as their industry. You want to be as certain as possible that the subtenant will continue to pay their sublease rent. The last thing a sublandlord needs is to spend even more time and money evicting a deadbeat subtenant, and then have to start the process all over again.
Inform your landlord in writing once you decided to sublease space. This may expedite the landlord’s consent process, which will be required to consummate the sublease. Additionally, you may get lucky and the landlord could elect to ‘recapture’ the space if they have another party interested.
In rare instances, a sublandlord may be able to profit from subleasing space due to an upward trend in market conditions. This is more typical in a retail setting, but can happen in office or industrial sectors as well. Once again, look to your lease before celebrating. The landlord may be entitled to all profits if the lease was poorly negotiated. If that is the case, the tenant might as well sublease the space at its below-market rate and a find subtenant much sooner. Again, read your lease, as you may not be permitted to undercut the landlord’s rates. Most commercial leases are ultimately drafted such that the landlord and tenant share any sublease profits on a 50/50 basis, after the tenant has recovered reasonable fees for commissions, improvement allowances and other marketing expenses.
As you can see, subleasing space is no fun. There is little certainty with regard to the outcome and very limited flexibility. The best defense is to plan ahead and exercise extreme caution when entering into a lease in the first place.
Robert Chavez is the founder and CEO of Guardian Commercial Realty. Reach him at Robert.Chavez@GuardianUSA.net or (310) 882-2060.
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Business owners might avoid bringing an attorney to the table when negotiating a lease, but the advantages of having an advocate in their corner far outweigh the cost.
“In my experience, when you see a lease where an attorney was not involved on behalf of the tenant, you get a lopsided, landlord-favoring lease,” says Jesshill Love, a partner with Ropers Majeski Kohn & Bentley PC. “The attorney’s job is to think ahead to what happens if something goes wrong to make sure the tenant will be treated fairly.”
Smart Business spoke to Love about the pitfalls a tenant can avoid by partnering with an attorney before signing a commercial lease.
Why should an attorney be present in the negotiations?
Any smart businessman or woman is going to employ both an attorney and tenant broker, because they have different roles. A broker is going to be more focused on lease rates, market factors, square footage allocations and tenant improvement allowances. An attorney is going to focus on protections for the tenant from the point of view of the ‘legalese’ of the lease. This can include indemnification, attorney fees, arbitration and mediation issues. Sometimes an attorney has to interpret multiple provisions together in order to get to the conclusion that the lease actually pushes more of the obligations and expenses onto the tenant than it should. The role of the tenant’s attorney is to make sure that the tenant is well represented and receives the benefit of the bargain in the negotiation process.
What is the role of the letter of intent?
This is often where tenants misstep: they start talking to the landlord about deal points or even move to a draft lease before considering the letter of intent (LOI). The LOI is what will set the tone for future negotiations, and if you don’t drive a hard bargain at the LOI stage, then you’re leaving money on the table when the lease is signed. Once the LOI is established, it’s going to serve as a framework for the actual drafting of the lease itself.
There’s a tremendous amount of standard language thrown into a lease, such as forum selection clauses, attorney fee provisions and indemnification and insurance provisions. All of this is fairly standardized in the industry, but the framework of the main deal points from the LOI is what’s going to set the tone for the lease when it comes to flexible items like tenant improvements, common area maintenance (CAM) expenses and operating expenses, and how they’re defined.
What are some provisions a tenant should push for in a lease?
These can change every couple of years as the market changes. Also, as new case law is handed down, attorneys on both sides of the negotiation will angle to push off certain costs or obligations on the opposing party. The big ticket items now are tenant improvements, free rent, environmental concerns, termination provisions and risk of loss provisions.
It’s still a tenant’s market, so negotiating for free rent up front is something you want to try to do, if possible. Also, try to negotiate a cap for any structural improvements with an absolution period and landlord indemnification of the tenant for any pre-existing structural or environmental problems. Mediation and arbitration as well as attorneys’ fees provisions are additional issues to look out for.
Landlords on triple-net leases will try to define everything as a tenant responsibility: roof, plumbing, sewer line, heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) and electrical problems. A tenant attorney should push back in an effort to make a major structural problem involving the building envelope the responsibility of the landlord.
Another thing you’ll definitely want to have is a clear definition of default, particularly if you have a letter of credit. You don’t want the landlord to be able to draw down on the letter of credit for something that’s an immaterial default under the lease. Also, when lease rates start to increase, landlords are going to be looking for any type of breach they can in order to cancel the tenant’s lease so they can lease to somebody else at a higher rate. Landlords will attempt to define default broadly to effectuate this purpose. We have seen multiple over-reaching default definitions, such as violation of local zoning and use laws and operating hour violations. The attorney’s job is to make sure that a breach of a lease for which the landlord can actually terminate is material; this should be limited to non-payment.
What should tenants avoid in a lease?
First, tenants should avoid personal guarantees when possible, as well as excessive security deposits. Relocation provisions should also be avoided or, at a minimum, limited. Relocation provisions are common in leases with multiple commercial tenant or office spaces. They allow the landlord to move a tenant if the landlord wants to incorporate the tenant’s space with adjoining spaces for a prospective tenant. The tenant has no choice but to move upon notification from the landlord. Relocation could result in a tenant being buried in the back of the office building, or the franchise in the shopping mall could end up tucked away in a space with little foot traffic. This is obviously not what the tenant initially negotiated for when the lease was signed. The tenant must negotiate relocation preferences and safeguards prior to signing that lease.
Further, some lease agreements require a tenant to continue to pay rent even if the space is rendered unusable. For example, if there’s a fire in the building, and the tenant cannot continue to operate the business, the tenant is still required to pay rent. Although the tenant’s lost business can be covered by business interruption insurance, it is not in the tenant’s best interests to have an open-ended time period for the landlord’s repair of the premises. Most large commercial leases are drafted that way — even if it’s not the tenant’s fault, the tenant is not allowed to terminate the lease pending the landlord’s repair of the premises. Litigation surrounding these matters between landlords and tenants can be company killers. There have to be provisions in the lease that say, if this can’t be fixed within a reasonable time period, the tenant gets to walk.
Jesshill E. Love is a partner with Ropers Majeski Kohn & Bentley PC. Contact him at (650) 780-1611 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Once a tenant has signed a commercial office lease it’s generally expected that it will remain in place for the duration of its term. Retail tenants in particular may spend large sums of money to upgrade their leased premises in reliance upon the negotiated terms and the expectation that a unique location will help drive strong revenue.
“These expectations, however, can go horribly wrong if their landlord experiences financial reversals and defaults on its loan obligations,” says Robert Chavez, founder and CEO of Guardian Commercial Realty.
Given the increase in commercial property foreclosures, Smart Business spoke to Chavez about SNDAs and how they pertain to a tenant’s rights in the event of a building foreclosure.
What is SNDA?
SNDA is the acronym for subordination, nondisturbance and attornment. Subordination and attornment provisions are included in most commercial offices leases as they define the responsibilities between a landlord, its lender and its tenants in the event of a default by the landlord and foreclosure by the lender. These provisions can also impact the distribution of insurance proceeds in the event of a casualty or condemnation. Subordination and attornment may be one of the most boring sections in a commercial office lease and is often ignored by tenants because it is so bland and legalese. Just because it is boring, however, does not mean it is not important. Subordination and attornment provisions buried in a lease can cause a tenant to waive very important rights in the event of a foreclosure.
What could happen to a tenant in a foreclosure?
In the event of a foreclosure, the tenant will have a new landlord — the lender. Subject to myriad underlying documents, the lender can either terminate or enforce existing leases within the foreclosed property. The lender may also be excused from funding tenant improvement allowances, as well as honoring rental abatement periods, self help provisions and other concessions that remain unfulfilled due to the landlord’s default. The lender’s objective will be to preserve and/or maximize the cash flow of its property to recover its loan principal and interest. Market conditions will play a large role in the lender’s actions. During strong economic periods with rising rental rates and low vacancies, lenders may elect to terminate existing leases and find new tenants willing to pay higher rents. The lender could also institute eviction proceedings immediately following foreclosure, making it impossible for the tenant to adequately plan for relocation. Aggressive lenders may also use these tactics as leverage to increase the tenant’s rent irrespective of the rent set forth in the lease. During recessionary periods with low rents and high vacancy, lenders will want to keep any above-market rents in place and do whatever else they can to preserve cash flow.
What should a tenant do to protect itself?
In situations where a tenant will make a significant investment in the leased premises, expect to benefit from a premium location, or is confident that its rent will be below market for the term, the tenant should insist upon a nondisturbance agreement. The nondisturbance agreement, executed by the tenant and lender, must be carefully drafted to ensure that the lender will honor all of the tenant’s rights under the lease after foreclosure. Tenants should expect resistance from lenders when seeking a nondisturbance agreement; this is especially true for non-credit tenants with smaller leases.
The scenario typically plays out in stages. First, the lender refuses to execute a nondisturbance agreement as it is under no obligation to do so. Next, if the tenant is persistent and the landlord is persuasive, the lender agrees to execute its ‘form’ nondisturbance agreement, but without any changes. Finally, after much negotiation, the lender and tenant agree to reasonable changes to achieve a mutually acceptable nondisturbance agreement. This process can take four to six weeks, and there is no guarantee that the lender will cooperate.
Sophisticated tenants have walked away from transactions at the 11th hour when the lender has refused to cooperate reasonably.
Should tenants always seek a nondisturbance agreement?
There may be circumstances under which a nondisturbance agreement may not be in a tenant’s best interests. Over time, a property may have become unattractive to the tenant because the rent is above market or the building’s condition is deteriorating. The tenant may also need to downsize or relocate. If so, then the tenant may want flexibility, and the nondisturbance agreement may lock the tenant into the lease, eliminating its ability to terminate in the event of a foreclosure.
It is important to note that this commentary is only the tip of the iceberg as it relates to SNDAs and their related issues. A tenant is well advised to seek the advice of an experienced real estate attorney before executing a lease.
ROBERT CHAVEZ is the founder and CEO of Guardian Commercial Realty. Reach him at Robert.Chavez@guardianusa.net or (310) 882-2060.
So you made the big decision to open a new office or extend the term of your existing lease. You have negotiated the material business points, including rental rate, improvement allowance, etc., and the landlord has sent you its “FORM” lease to sign and memorialize the transaction.
Not so fast! While you may believe that negotiations have ended, many important clauses remain in the body of that 60-plus-page lease. They must be carefully reviewed and likely amended before you sign.
“Remember, the lease was prepared by a sophisticated real estate attorney who represents the landlord’s best interests, not yours,” says Robert Chavez, founder and CEO of Guardian Commercial Realty. “Commercial leases are typically five- to 10-year contracts and can cripple a company if not properly negotiated — so proceed with extreme caution.”
Smart Business learned more from Chavez about the important items to review before signing that lease renewal.
What are the main things a business owner should know about a lease renewal?
Understand that landlords are not pleased when tenants make lease comments and they will resist your efforts to do so. It is imperative that you remain tenacious to secure a reasonable lease. Tenants have expectations of occupying habitable premises absent and extraordinary costs. You must look carefully for clauses that shift risk from the landlord to you.
The following three examples are important, but be advised that today’s leases contain dozens of dangerous clauses. Tenants are well advised to seek the assistance of an experienced real estate professional before executing a lease.
1. Premises area. At first blush, this section appears innocuous. If the square footage is correctly stated it may appear everything is in order. However, tenants must first ensure that the square footage has been accurately measured. Astute tenants engage their own architect to verify square footage. This can be accomplished quickly and cost effectively. Misstating square footage by a small percentage can cost a medium-sized tenant upwards of $90,000 in wasted money over a five-year term. Exaggerated square footage can also increase the tenant’s pro rata share of building operating and tax expenses by many thousands of dollars over the entire term.
Second, you must make certain that the landlord cannot unilaterally increase the premises square footage unless you actually expand. Many tenants have been shocked to see their rent statements increase simply because their landlord has implemented self-serving rationale for re-measuring the space. It is imperative that tenants stipulate the verified square footage as fixed throughout the term and option period(s) before signing.
2. Real property taxes. Aside from modest annual increases, California real estate values are reassessed upon a sale or transfer of interest in the property (triggering event). Landlords pass property taxes on to their tenants in various forms over the lease term, depending on the type of lease. If a building has been owned by the same landlord for many years, it is likely to have a very low tax basis, and the tax increase due upon a triggering event can be staggering. For example, if a building was valued at $100 million in 1991, and its current fair market value is $300 million, then tenants with leases in place will likely pay an enormous increase in their pro rata share of property taxes upon consummation of the triggering event and for every year thereafter while their lease is in place.
This may even occur when a privately held property becomes publicly traded. It is baffling why a landlord who sells its building for a gigantic profit would expect to pass the tax increases on to an unsuspecting tenant. Tenants do not profit from such a sale, the landlord does. Tenants should secure what is known as Proposition 13 tax protection to avoid paying these tax increases. If the landlord will not agree, then the tenant is well advised to ascertain the taxable basis for the building along with its current fair market value to estimate what its increased occupancy costs will be upon a triggering event. Then the tenant can at least make an informed decision regarding its election to sign the lease or not.
3. Surrender agreement. This clause addresses the tenant’s responsibilities once a lease terminates and the tenant vacates. It is standard for tenants to return space subject to reasonable wear and tear. Some leases, however, impose additional burdens and costs upon a tenant when vacating. A popular AIR form lease provides an extremely broad definition of ‘utility installations’ in one section of the lease that appears harmless. The definition includes items such as power panels, floor coverings (carpet and linoleum), security systems, fire protection, cabling, HVAC equipment and plumbing in or on the premises. It does not make a distinction as to whether the landlord, tenant or even a prior tenant installed these items. Later in the lease, the same phrase, ‘utility installations,’ is used to boot-strap tenants’ responsibilities in the ‘surrender’ section.
‘Utility installations’ takes on a whole new meaning when incorporated into the surrender clause. Costs as high as $100,000 have been charged to medium-sized tenants simply because the surrender clause is so pervasive. Keep in mind that the existing tenant may be moving to a competing building after negotiations with the current landlord soured. If there is bad blood, landlords have been known to use this clause to extract many thousands of dollars from a vacating tenant. Even though it’s years away from being an issue, pay close attention to the surrender clause before signing a lease.
Robert Chavez is the founder and CEO of Guardian Commercial Realty. Reach him at Robert.Chavez@guardianusa.net or (310) 882-2060.
Leasing space for your business — whether office, retail or industrial — is an important investment for any company. While there are always many factors to consider, it is important to understand what is reasonable for your particular business in the marketplace.
In most areas it is still a tenant’s market, so it may make sense to upgrade, expand and extend leases now. In other markets, the leasing climate has started to change and landlords are able to drive harder bargains. Whatever market your company is in, there are several common leasing issues that should always be considered when negotiating a lease or lease extension.
Smart Business spoke to Sonia Lister and Spring Robinson of Jackson DeMarco Tidus Peckenpaugh about their list of the top 10 most common lease negotiation issues that business owners should address when discussing leasing needs with their landlord.
1. Letter of intent. Depending on the complexity of the lease terms, it is almost always to a tenant’s advantage to have a detailed letter of intent (LOI) as the first step in lease negotiations. The LOI should include all of the business terms of the lease. Even though the LOI is typically a non-binding document, the business terms of the deal are rarely renegotiated after the lease negotiations begin, so all essential terms should be clearly addressed in the LOI.
2. Landlord incentives. Consider asking for incentives from the landlord. A company’s ability to negotiate landlord incentives will vary depending on the vacancy rate in the market, as well as other factors such as the company’s size and financial ability. A long lease term and solid tenant commitment may motivate the landlord to offer generous concessions and incentives. Typical incentives include periods of free rent or discounted rent, landlord contributions to build-out costs or moving costs, limits on future rent increases, free parking and reduced or capped operating expenses.
3. Improvements to the premises. Evaluate which party should construct the improvements to the premises. There are three common options: a) tenant build, b) turnkey (landlord builds the improvements at its expense pursuant to a specific plan), or c) landlord build. The negotiation considerations for each of these scenarios are different and so you should be sure to discuss them carefully with an experienced tenant broker and legal counsel.
4. Condition of the premises. Make certain that the current condition of the premises is acceptable if no improvements are being made to the premises. Taking the premises ‘as is’ exposes the tenant to risk for inadequate or outdated facilities. At a minimum, the landlord should warrant that the space is up to current building, fire, safety, zoning and disability access codes and should warrant the condition of electrical, plumbing, heating and air-conditioning systems (even if only for a limited period of time).
5. Planning for catastrophic events. The lease should provide procedures in the event of any future catastrophic event (i.e. damage to the premises, condemnation, or disruption in utilities). In such events, the lease should clearly provide who is responsible for repairing or restoring the damage, whether the tenant is entitled to abatement of rent, and the right to terminate the lease if such catastrophic event is long lasting or of a significant nature.
6. Limiting the liability of lease guarantors. If a principal of your company is required to personally guarantee the tenant’s obligations under the lease, try to limit his or her potential exposure to liability. The risk to the lease guarantor can be limited by adding provisions that reduce the term of the guaranty to a certain number of months after the lease commencement date, or limit the maximum amount payable by the lease guarantor to a fixed dollar amount.
7. Consider future flexibility or allowances for company growth. Prior to entering into a lease or extending the term of an existing lease, it is important to analyze every aspect of your company’s business plan to make sure that the size of the premises is compatible with existing and future plans for your business, and that there is sufficient flexibility built into the lease in the event that plan changes. Some provisions to include to ensure future flexibility include a lease extension option, space enlargement or reduction option, early termination option and the ability to assign the lease or sublease the premises.
8. Security deposit. Depending on the market and the financial strength of your company, it may be possible to minimize the amount of the cash security deposit. If your company is and has been financially strong, the landlord may waive the security deposit altogether. Furthermore, if it makes business sense for your company, a landlord may accept a letter of credit in lieu of a cash security deposit. If, however, you are required to provide a cash security deposit, consider building into the lease a provision that would allow the security deposit to be decreased over time if the tenant has fully performed its obligations.
9. Hold-over provision. Make certain that any penalty for ‘holding-over’ or remaining in the premises after the expiration of the lease is reasonable. Furthermore, be sure to allow flexibility for negotiations with the landlord at or beyond the expiration of the term to renew the lease without payment of any hold-over penalty.
10. Notice periods and deadlines. All notice periods and deadlines for exercising or enforcing rights should be reasonable. After your company has signed the lease, it is important to periodically review the lease and to calendar all important dates so as not to forfeit or waive any rights, such as an extension option, early termination option or space reduction option.
Sonia A. Lister is a shareholder and member of JDTP’s Real Estate Practice Group. Reach her at email@example.com or (949) 851-7408. Spring M. Robinson is an associate and member of JDTP’s Real Estate Practice Group. Reach her at firstname.lastname@example.org or (949) 851-7474.